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Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

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Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the importance of human milk and breastfeeding in the programming of infant health has risen to the fore. Anchoring of infant feeding in the developmental origins of health and disease has led to a resurgence of research focused in this area. Milk composition is highly variable both between and within mothers. Indeed the distinct maternal human milk signature, including its own microbiome, is influenced by environmental factors, such as diet, health, body composition and geographic residence. An understanding of these changes will lead to unravelling the adaptation of milk to the environment and its impact on the infant. In terms of the promotion of breastfeeding, health economics and epidemiology is instrumental in shaping public health policy and identifying barriers to breastfeeding. Further, basic research is imperative in order to design evidence-based interventions to improve both breastfeeding duration and women’s breastfeeding experience.

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Keywords

  • adequate intake
  • adipokines
  • adiponectin
  • Andean region
  • anthropometrics
  • Antibodies
  • antimicrobial proteins
  • antisecretory factor
  • Appetite Regulation
  • arachidonic acid
  • Attitudes
  • babywearing
  • Barriers
  • bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy
  • Body Composition
  • bottle
  • breast milk
  • breastfed infants
  • Breastfeeding
  • breastfeeding support
  • breastmilk
  • caesarean section
  • calculated daily intakes
  • Cambodia
  • Canada
  • Candida
  • casein
  • choline
  • chromatography
  • co-sleeping
  • colostrum
  • Composition
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Diet
  • dietary recommendations
  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • early life nutrition
  • Ecuador
  • Endocannabinoids
  • enteral nutrition
  • Ethnicity
  • expressing
  • fat synthesis
  • Fatty acids
  • feeding
  • feeding cues
  • formula supplementation
  • galactogogues
  • GDM
  • geographical location
  • glycerophosphocholine
  • Growth factors
  • HGF
  • human lactation
  • human milk
  • human milk composition
  • ICP-OES
  • IgA
  • immune cells
  • Immunity
  • Infant
  • infant feeding
  • infant growth
  • infant health
  • Infants
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • ion selective electrode
  • Ireland
  • justification of supplementation
  • Knowledge
  • lactating women
  • Lactation
  • lactoferrin
  • Leptin
  • lipidomics
  • Lipids
  • long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • maternal diet
  • maternal distress
  • maternal factors
  • maternal responsiveness
  • maternal wellbeing
  • metabolites
  • microbiome
  • Midwifery
  • milk cells
  • milk composition
  • milk intake
  • milk metabolites
  • milk metabolomics
  • milk synthesis
  • milk-acquired infections
  • mode of delivery
  • mothers of preterm infants
  • mother–infant interaction
  • mother–infant physical contact
  • n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid
  • N-acylethanolamines
  • nipple shield
  • NMR spectroscopy
  • Obesity
  • OEA
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • omega-6 fatty acids
  • partner support
  • passive immunity
  • paternal role
  • PEA
  • peptidomics
  • phosphocholine
  • plasma zinc
  • post-partum distress
  • postnatal outcomes
  • Potassium
  • Practice
  • Pregnancy
  • premature
  • prematurity
  • preterm
  • preterm infant
  • professional support
  • Protein
  • proteolysis
  • proton nuclear magnetic resonance
  • proximal care
  • Quito
  • raw breast milk
  • responsive feeding
  • Sea
  • sex-specificity
  • Social Support
  • sodium
  • TGF-?
  • thyroid
  • thyroid antibodies
  • thyroxine
  • triiodothyronine
  • ultrasound skinfolds
  • whey
  • Zinc deficiency
  • zinc supplementation

Links

DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-931-9

Editions

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