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Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases

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Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

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Keywords

  • 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone
  • acute kidney injury
  • acute lung injury
  • adverse event profile
  • Africa
  • age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • anaemia
  • Anemia
  • Anemia of chronic disease
  • anemia of inflammation
  • anti-hepcidin therapy
  • Antibacterial activity
  • antitumor compound
  • Bacteria
  • binding ability
  • bioavailability
  • Bioengineering
  • biomarker
  • BMP/Smad
  • bone homeostasis
  • Brain
  • Brain Development
  • Cancer
  • cardiomyocyte
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • cataracts syndrome
  • CD8+ T cells
  • central nurse macrophage
  • chaotropes
  • chelation
  • chelators
  • Children
  • chronic heart failure
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • cinnamic acid derivatives
  • Cognition
  • colorectal cancer
  • COPD
  • cystic fibrosis
  • Cytokines
  • Developing countries
  • Developmental
  • didox
  • Drug delivery
  • efficacy
  • electron transfer
  • erythroblastic islands
  • erythrophagocytosis
  • Erythropoiesis
  • Fe2+-chelating activity
  • ferritin
  • ferritinophagy
  • ferroportin
  • ferroptosis
  • FeSO4
  • flavin nucleotide
  • Flavonoids
  • fluorescent iron chelator
  • fluorophore
  • Friedreich Ataxia
  • genetic hemochromatosis
  • Growth
  • Gut Microbiota
  • haem
  • haptoglobin
  • Heme
  • heme homeostasis
  • heme oxygenase
  • hemochromatosis
  • hemolysis
  • hemopexin
  • Hemorrhage
  • hepcidin
  • hereditary hyperferritinemia
  • hereditary hypoferritinemia
  • HFE
  • histidine
  • hypoxia
  • Immunity
  • Indonesia
  • Infants
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
  • innate immunity
  • interleukin-6
  • intestinal inflammation
  • intravenous iron
  • Iron
  • iron absorption
  • iron chelation
  • iron chelation therapy
  • Iron chelators
  • Iron deficiency
  • iron deficiency anemia
  • iron delivery
  • iron dextran
  • iron homeostasis
  • iron metabolism
  • iron mobilization
  • iron overload
  • iron processing
  • iron regulatory proteins
  • iron release
  • iron supplementation
  • iron transporters
  • iron-carbohydrate complex
  • Iron-sulfur
  • IV iron therapy
  • Kidney
  • kinetics
  • Kupffer cell
  • labile iron
  • Lipid
  • Liver
  • low and middle income countries
  • Lung
  • Lung Diseases
  • lung infection
  • M cells
  • macrophage
  • Macrophages
  • Malaria
  • Mek/Erk
  • membrane interactions
  • Metabolism
  • MHC
  • microbiome
  • Mitochondria
  • mucosal immunity
  • multifunctional iron chelators
  • mycobacteria
  • n/a
  • NaFeEDTA
  • nanocage
  • Nanotechnology
  • Natural history
  • NBIA
  • NCOA4
  • neonatal
  • neonatal period
  • neurodegeneration
  • neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
  • neurodegenerative disease
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • neuroimmune responses
  • neuroinflammation
  • Neurophysiology
  • non transferrin bound iron
  • non-haem iron
  • non-HFE
  • non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI)
  • nutrient iron
  • Obesity
  • oral iron salts
  • oral iron therapy
  • osteoblast
  • osteoclast
  • osteoporosis
  • Oxidative Stress
  • oxygen sensing
  • patient blood management
  • peritoneal dialysis
  • pharmaceutical targets
  • Phlebotomy
  • pig
  • pituitary
  • Prevention
  • protein binding
  • pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells
  • red pulp macrophage
  • reducibility
  • Retina
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • rhodamine
  • RRM2
  • SCFA
  • senescence
  • serum biomarker
  • SLC40A1
  • SNC
  • Social Behavior
  • soybean seed ferritin
  • Sucrosomial® iron
  • supplementation
  • T lymphocytes
  • Tfr2
  • Therapy
  • TNF
  • tolerability
  • transferrin receptor
  • Trauma
  • Treatment
  • vascular calcification
  • venesections

Links

DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-115-2

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