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Toward a Sustainable Agriculture Through Plant Biostimulants

Toward a Sustainable Agriculture Through Plant Biostimulants

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Over the past decade, interest in plant biostimulants has been on the rise, compelled by the growing interest of researchers, extension specialists, private industries, and farmers in integrating these products in the array of environmentally friendly tools to secure improved crop performance, nutrient efficiency, product quality, and yield stability. Plant biostimulants include diverse organic and inorganic substances, natural compounds, and/or beneficial microorganisms such as humic acids, protein hydrolysates, seaweed and plant extracts, silicon, endophytic fungi like mycorrhizal fungi, and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azospirillum, Azotobacter, and Rhizobium. Other substances (e.g., chitosan and other biopolymers and inorganic compounds) can have biostimulant properties, but their classification within the group of biostimulants is still under consideration. Plant biostimulants are usually applied to high-value crops, mainly greenhouse crops, fruit trees and vines, open-field crops, flowers, and ornamentals to sustainably increase yield and product quality. The global biostimulant market is currently estimated at about $2.0 billion and is expected to reach $3.0 billion by 2021 at an annual growth rate of 13%. A growing interest in plant biostimulants from industries and scientists was demonstrated by the high number of published peer-reviewed articles, conferences, workshops, and symposia in the past ten years. This book compiles several original research articles, technology reports, methods, opinions, perspectives, and invited reviews and mini reviews dissecting the biostimulatory action of these natural compounds and substances and beneficial microorganisms on crops grown under optimal and suboptimal growing conditions (e.g., salinity, drought, nutrient deficiency and toxicity, heavy metal contaminations, waterlogging, and adverse soil pH conditions). Also included are contributions dealing with the effect as well as the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant biostimulants on nutrient efficiency, product quality, and modulation of the microbial population both quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, identification and understanding of the optimal method, time, rate of application and phenological stage for improving plant performance and resilience to stress as well as the best combinations of plant species/cultivar × environment × management practices are also reported. We strongly believe that high standard reflected in this compilation on the principles and practices of plant biostimulants will foster knowledge transfer among scientific communities, industries, and agronomists, and will enable a better understanding of the mode of action and application procedures of biostimulants in different cropping systems.

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Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • abiotic stresses
  • aeroponics
  • alfalfa brown juice
  • alfalfa hydrolysate
  • algal polysaccharide
  • AM fungi
  • AMF associated bacteria
  • amino acids
  • anti-nutritional substances
  • antioxidant activity
  • antioxidant capacity
  • Antioxidants
  • arbuscular mycorrhiza
  • arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
  • arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis
  • Ascophyllum nodosum
  • ascorbic acid
  • Azotobacter
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • bean
  • bio-fertilizer
  • biocontrol
  • biofertilization
  • biofertilizers
  • biological activity
  • biological index fertility
  • Biology, Life Sciences
  • biostimulant
  • biostimulants
  • biostimulation
  • Capsicum annuum
  • carbon metabolism
  • carotenoids
  • chitosan
  • chlorophyll pigments
  • common bean
  • Corn
  • cover crop
  • crocin
  • Crocus sativus
  • Crocus Sativus L.
  • CROPWAT model
  • deproteinized leaf juice
  • eco-friendly practices
  • Environmental stress
  • Euglena gracilis
  • Fat
  • Fermentation
  • fertilizer
  • fibre
  • Flavonoids
  • foliar spray
  • Fragaria x ananassa
  • fruit quality
  • functional quality
  • Funneliformis mosseae
  • Gene expression
  • Gibberellins
  • glasshouse
  • Glomus spp.
  • Growth
  • growth enhancement
  • growth parameters
  • heterostyly
  • histological changes
  • humic acid
  • humic acids
  • humic substances
  • imaging
  • indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)
  • indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)
  • industrial crops
  • isotope
  • isotopic labeling
  • Jew’s Mallow
  • L-glycine
  • L-methionine
  • L-tryptophan
  • Lactic acid bacteria
  • Lactuca sativa L.
  • Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia
  • leaf area index (LAI)
  • leaf quality
  • legume-derived protein hydrolysate
  • lettuce
  • lignohumate
  • lignosulfonate
  • lycopene
  • macroalgae
  • Maize
  • Mater-Bi®
  • Mathematics & science
  • Melatonin
  • Mentha longifolia
  • Microalgae
  • microbial biostimulant
  • microbiome
  • microorganism consortium
  • mineral composition
  • mineral profile
  • morphotype
  • mycorrhizal inoculants
  • mycorrhizosphere
  • N fertilization
  • N organic fertilizer
  • next generation sequencing
  • nitrate
  • Nitrogen
  • nitrogen metabolism
  • nitrogen use efficiency
  • nitrogenase activity
  • non-microbial biostimulant
  • nutraceutical potential
  • nutrient use efficiency
  • Nutrients
  • organic acids
  • Organic farming
  • ornamental plants
  • Paraburkholderia phytofirmans
  • PGPB
  • PGPR
  • phenolic compounds
  • phenolics
  • phenols
  • phenomics
  • phosphate-solubilizing bacteria
  • phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms
  • Photosynthesis
  • physiological mechanism
  • physiological mechanisms
  • phytomelatonin
  • phytoparasitic nematodes
  • picrocrocin
  • plant biostimulant
  • plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
  • plant growth promotion
  • plant growth-promoting bacteria
  • Plant Nutrition
  • plant phenotyping
  • plant protector
  • Plant Stress
  • plants biostimulants
  • pod quality
  • pollination efficiency
  • Polyphenols
  • Probiotics
  • propagation
  • protected cultivation
  • Protein
  • protein hydrolysate
  • protein hydrolysates
  • Proteins
  • Pterocladia capillacea
  • Reference, information & interdisciplinary subjects
  • Research & information: general
  • Rhizophagus intraradices
  • root
  • root morphology traits
  • Row crops
  • safranal
  • seaweed extract
  • seaweed extracts
  • seed coating
  • seed quality
  • Septoria
  • siderophore production
  • Silicon
  • soil enzymatic activity
  • soil inoculant
  • Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index
  • soilless conditions
  • Solanum lycopersicum L.
  • Solanum melongena
  • soybean
  • SPAD index
  • specific leaf area (SLA)
  • Spinacia oleracea L.
  • stem cuttings
  • strain-specific primer
  • Streptomyces
  • Stress
  • substrate
  • Sugars
  • suppressiveness
  • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Sustainable Management
  • sweet basil
  • Technology, engineering, agriculture
  • thyme essential oil
  • tocopherols
  • tomato
  • total ascorbic acid
  • total sugars
  • Tracking
  • Trichoderma
  • tropical plant extract
  • tuber yield
  • turfgrass
  • ultrasound-assisted water
  • Valerianella locusta L.
  • Vegetables
  • vermicompost
  • water deficit
  • water stress
  • wheat
  • yield
  • yielding
  • Zea mays L
  • Zinc
  • β-glucan

Links

DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-0365-0029-4

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